Obesity means having excess body fat. In general, overweight and obesity indicate a weight greater than what is healthy. A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions.
Body mass index (BMI) is best method to evaluate obesity. Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using a person’s height and weight. The formula is BMI = kg/m2 where kg is a person’s weight in kilograms and m2 is their height in meters squared. An adult who has a BMI of 25-29.9 is overweight, and an adult who has a BMI over 30 is obese. A person with a BMI of 18.5-24.9 has a normal weight.
Obesity also increases the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, High blood pressure (hypertension) High cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia),Stroke (cerebrovascular accident or CVA),heart attack, congestive heart failure. The balance between calorie intake and energy expenditure determines a person’s weight. If a person eats more calories than he or she burns, the person gains weight .If a person eats fewer calories than he or she metabolizes, he or she will lose weight. Therefore, the most common causes of obesity are overeating and physical inactivity. Ultimately, body weight is the result of genetics, metabolism, environment, behavior, and culture.
Obesity can be treated by-
• Exercise and activity
• Dietary changes -reduce total daily calorie intake and to consume more fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
• Prescription weight-loss medications
• Weight-loss surgery (bariatric surgery)